The Technology Factor in International Trade



The United States in the 1950s and 1960s, and even into the present, has achieved global competitive advantage from investment in R&D. Dr. Gruber applied his industrial experience in the transfer of technology to a global level with Professor Raymond Vernon, then director of the Harvard Business School Multinational Corporation program. Their first article was published with  Dileep Mehta, professor at Columbia University, in the 1967 Journal of Political Economy, “The R & D Factor in International Trade and International Investment of United States Industries.” This was the basis of National Bureau of Economic Research conference, The Technology Factor in International Trade, which was edited by Raymond Vernon and published by The National Bureau of Economic Research in 1970.


In Dr. Grubers research and talks with late Harvard Business School professor, Raymond Vernon, we were the early leaders in empirical evidence of R&D as a powerful force in global competitive advantage. In this work we coined the term “Product Life Cycle” with invention and manufacturing first in the United States and then matured manufacturing moved to other countries.



"For the last two decades, the evolution of international trade theory has been marked by the increasingly important role of technology. Although the important of this factor has long been recognized, it was not until the advent of large-scale data processing, that real progress could be made towards accommodating it. At about the same time, the introduction of the Leontief Paradox gave additional powerful stimulus to empirical testing. These two developments brought a torrent of new research whose sheer rate of accumulation quickly outpaced the few efforts to synthesize it. To meet this challenge, the Universities-National Bureau Committee prepared the conference, held in October 1968, of which this book is a result. It is the most comprehensive effort made since the breakthrough of the early 1950s to relate theory and evidence in the international trade sector."


© 2019 William H. Gruber