American Management Associations, 1981




"Research and development is not an end in itself, but a means for producing a new product or process. Another function - marketing, for example, or manufacturing - carries the innovation one step further, either to the market place or the shop floor. Finally, the performance of an R&D function is measured in very real terms: profit netted through sales of a new product, or dollars saved through implementation of a new process."



"It follows, then, that R&D must understand what marketing can sell and what manufacturing needs. Similarly, marketing and manufacturing should understand what is technologically feasible for R&D to produce."


"Two-way communication, cooperation, and mutual understanding form the essence of strategic integration."

"This management briefing has an action focus: to improve the contribution of R&D to corporate performance. Management by strategy is in itself an innovative program that improves the effectiveness of R&D and provides significant return on the resources it requires."

© 2019 William H. Gruber